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MADE-PUBLIC will lead to major science advances in three domains: precision growth of plants, manufacturing of tailored bio-based inks, and sustainable production of printable electronics. As a convergent research program, the project will further lead to value-added transferrable and scalable scientific advancements, including novel AI/ML algorithms for manufacturing, a framework for designing sustainable and systematically optimized manufacturing processes, and techniques for incorporating heterogeneous data into manufacturing data systems while automatically refining the models. To launch the paradigm, we will demonstrate environmentally sustainable manufacturing of printed chemical sensors powered by on-board printed lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The printing substrate will be biodegradable paper or polylactic acid (PLA)-based plastics derived from renewable biomass. The conductive ink for the sensors and batteries will contain graphene from plant-derived lignin. The ink will be stabilized by plant-derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Both lignin and CNCs will be extracted from hydroponically raised plants. Waste will be minimized by using a new chemistry and a continuous-flow design for processing graphene. The printed devices will be used in the project for monitoring hydroponic growing conditions. Learned models will correlate plant phenotypes and growth conditions with cellulose and lignin extraction, connect ink formulation with desired ink properties, and associate printing parameters with electronic device performance and quality. The project will lead to an open-source biomaterials-based electronics manufacturing data infrastructure (BEMDI) that fosters innovation through building a community of innovators, educators, and industry partners interested in manufacturing bio-based printable electronics.

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